Wednesday, March 28, 2018

i-Fect Delivers Again!

Knocks Down Suspected Stress/Anxiety Receptor


The molecular pathogenesis underlying anxiety disorders is still unclear. Here, the authors demonstrate that myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate like 1 (MARCKSL1) overexpression in mice increases spine formation in the amygdala and induces stress hormone upregulation and anxiety-like behaviors. Suppression of MARCKSL1 in the amygdala ameliorates both the increase in stress hormones and the elevated anxiety-like behaviors. Our results indicate that MARCKSL1 expression in the amygdala plays an important role in anxiety-like behaviors.

This was proved, in part, by the knockdown of MARCKSL1 in vivo in mice using our i-FectTM. Tanaka, Takashi; Shimizu, Shoko; Ueno, Masaki; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Ikawa, Masahito; Miyata, Shingo. MARCKSL1 Regulates Spine Formation in the Amygdala and Controls the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Anxiety-Like Behaviors. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.03.018

Figure: Knockdown of MARCKSL1 ameliorates anxiety-like behavior in MARCKSL1 Tg mice. (A and B) For the in vivo experiment, siRNA (blue) was injected into the CeA (total 4 sites) with i-Fect siRNA transfection reagents 5 days prior to behavioral tests. (C) In situ hybridization for Marcksl1 mRNA (blue) in the amygdala after injection of Marcksl1 siRNA into the CeA of Tg/Tg mice. Scale bar, 200 μm. (D and E) Light/dark transition test and elevated plus maze performance in 
MARCKSL1 knockdown mice (WT + control siRNA, n = 7; Tg/Tg + control siRNA, n = 7; Tg/Tg + Marcksl1 siRNA, n = 8).

We will continue to post new i-Fect results here.

Monday, February 19, 2018

i-Fect Delivers siRNA to Study Angiogenesis in Brain Injury

Silencing Lactate Dehydrogenase A in vivo

Pathologic CNS is characterized by neuronal damage that leads to the release of intracellular components. However, the effect of damaged cells on angiogenesis has not been clarified. This study revealed that LDHA, which is a known damage marker, promotes CNS-specific angiogenesis. LDHA-mediated angiogenesis depends on vimentin on the surface of vascular endothelial cells. The work described here proposes a novel mechanism by which neurodegeneration drives angiogenesis in the CNS.

A mixture of our i-FectTM and LDHA siRNA, in this study, were directly injected into mice cortexes: Hsiaoyun Lin, Rieko Muramatsu, Noriko Maedera, Hiroto Tsunematsu, Machika Hamaguchi, Yoshihisa Koyama, Mariko Kuroda, Kenji Ono, Makoto Sawada, Toshihide Yamashita. Extracellular Lactate Dehydrogenase A Release From Damaged Neurons Drives Central Nervous System Angiogenesis. doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.10.033.
Images: LDHA is sufficient to evoke CNS angiogenesis. (a) Representative images of CD105-labeled spinal cord sections obtained 7 days after LDHA administration. (b) Length of CD105+ neovessels around the LDHA administration site as indicated in a, n = 5 each. (c) Representative image of a Nissl-stained brain section after controlled cortical impact (CCI). (d) Representative image of the CD105-immunolabelled cerebral cortex obtained 7 days after CCI. (e) Length of CD105+ neovessels around CCI lesions as indicated in d; n = 5 each, all error bars represent the s.e.m. **P < 0.01, Student's t-tests. Scale bars, 200 μm.

The findings reveal unexpected neurovascular interactions in the injured adult CNS that may be relevant to our understanding of neuronal damage, which is a hallmark of many CNS disorders

Saturday, January 13, 2018

Delivering siRNA in vivo

New Publications

Our i-Fect transfection kit was one of the first products. This has resulted in it being widely used and frequently published.

We kick off 2018 with some new publications. Here we feature a study where researchers use our kit to deliver G-protein-coupled receptor C (MrgprC) siRNA in vivo. This receptor is part of the TRPV1 pathway.



Image: Expression of TRPV1 in rats treated with MrgrprC si RNA vs controls (C).

The others conclude that MrgprC expression is impacted by electroacupuncture and downregulates  TRPV1.  This is the mechanism that results in pain relief.

Thursday, September 21, 2017

i-Fect Deliver Plasmids to the CNS

Important for Gene Expression Studies.
I have posted many examples of how our customers use i-FectTM  and other Transfection Solutions for Gene Manipulation Studies. There are also many publications.

Here we feature how i-Fect was used to delivery plasmids to the CNS: Sara Elramah, María José López-González, Matthieu Bastide, Florence Dixmérias, Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Anne-Cécile Wielanek-Bachelet, Anne Vital, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Alexandre Brochard, Marc Landry & Alexandre Favereaux. Spinal miRNA-124 regulates synaptopodin and nociception in an animal model of bone cancer pain. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 10949 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10224-1...Intrathecal administration of miRNAs and ShRNA To over-express miR-124, we cloned the pre-miRNA sequence of miR-124 into a plasmid. To determine cells expressing this miR-124 encoding plasmid, we added a GFP-coding sequence to the construct under the control of an IRES. Thus, miR-124 over-expressing cells also express GFP. To inhibit synaptopodin expression, we cloned a ShRNA sequence directed against synaptopodin into a plasmid. To determine cells expressing this ShRNA, we added a GFP-coding sequence to the construct under the control of an IRES. Thus, ShRNA expressing cells also expressed GFP. Two micrograms of these plasmids or the corresponding controls, were solubilized in 10 µl of i-Fect reagent (Neuromics, Edina, USA), and injected intrathecally between the L5 and L6 lumbar vertebrae every two days for a total of 3 injections, according to the manufacturer’s instructions and previously published experiments...
Figures: (C and D) Immunostaining of synpo in spinal cord after miR-124 intrathecal injections: only the dorsal horn which receive nociceptive information was quantified (white dash area). Measurement of synaptopodin stained area reveals ability of miR-124 to inhibit endogenous Synpo expression (20/3 and 17/3 denotes number of sections/animals for control and miR-124-injected mice, respectively.
I am confident there will be many more positive reports regarding our Transfection Reagents.

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Desperately Seeking Data

Answering the Bell
We continue to seek data using our cells. We offer a reward of 25 USD Starbucks' Gift Card.

We were pleased to receive a recently published study from Dr. Mahendran Subramanian of Keele University. In this study, researchers showed that oscillating nanomagnetic gene transfection could be used to successfully transfect SH‐SY5Y cells as well as our primary hippocampal and cortical neurons on different days in vitro. This novel technique was used to effectively deliver genetic material into various cell types, resulting in high transfection efficiency and viability. Mahendran Subramanian, Aimee‐Jayne Tyler, Eva Maria Luther, Elena Di Daniel, Jenson Lim and Jon Dobson. Oscillating Magnet Array−Based Nanomagnetic Gene Transfection: A Valuable Tool for Molecular Neurobiology Studies. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 28; doi:10.3390/nano7020028...Primary rat hippocampal and cortical neurons were obtained from Neuromics (Edina, MN, USA) and disassociated using papain disassociation kit (Worthington, NJ, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Isolated neurons were maintained using neurobasal medium supplemented with 5% FBS, 0.5 mM Glutamax, 2% B27 supplement, 25 μM L‐glutamine and seeded onto poly‐D‐lysine–coated cells culture plates...
Figure 1. Oscillating magnet array−based nanomagnetic gene transfection experimental setup. (A) Representation of a 96‐well oscillating magnet array–based nanomagnetic transfection setup using NdFeB magnetic array (nanotherics); (B) Dimensions of the permanent magnets and magnetostatic (vectorpotential) algorithm based magnetic field density |B| distribution (T) contour plot for the NdFeB magnetic array.

Figure 2. Gene delivery by oscillating nanomagnetic gene transfection in primary cortical neurons. Images of pmaxGFP plasmid expressed in primary neurons using fluorescence microscopy and its corresponding Hoechst 33,342 stained counterpart of transfected DIV 1 (A,C) and DIV 5 (B,D) mature neurons were taken 48 h post transfection.

If you have data to share email it to me, pshuster@neuromics.com and we'll email you a 25 USD gift card. Thank you. Pete Shuster, CEO & Owner.

Monday, January 30, 2017

More iFect in-vivo

The parade of publications continues to grow.

Here researchers use our i-FectTM Transfection Kit for delivering sh-IRF3 in vivo: Rui Li, Li-guo Wang, Qi Wang, Zhi-hua Li, Ya-li Ma, Qing-Duo Guo. Silencing of IRF3 alleviates chronic neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury. doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.085... The oligonucleotides for sh-IRF3 were: 5′-CACCGCGTCTAGGCTGGTGGTTATTCGAAAATAACCACCAGCCTAGACGC-3′ −3′. Then, 10 μg sh-IRF3 dissolved in 30 μl i-Fect transfection reagent (Neuromics, Edina, MN, USA) was administered intrathecally once daily for 7...

Fig. Down-regulation of IRF3 attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats. (A) The mRNA expression level of IRF3 in the DRG at postoperative day 7. (B) The protein expression level of IRF3 in the DRG at postoperative day 7. (C and D) PWT and PWL were measured 1 day before CCI and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after intrathecal injection of sh-IRF3 or scramble.

Down-regulation of IRF3 inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the DRG of CCI rats.

These results indicated that IRF3 was involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Down-regulation of IRF3 attenuated neuropathic pain in CCI rats by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, suggesting that IRF3 may be a novel and potential target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Friday, August 19, 2016

Delivering miRNA in vivo

More Transfection Success! Great Research Tools!

Our i-FectTM  Transfection Kit is used to study Epigenetics and pain. Here's yet another example: M. Leinders, b, N. Üçeyler, R.A. Pritchard, C. Sommer, L.S. Sorkin. Increased miR-132-3p expression is associated with chronic neuropathic pain. Experimental Neurology. Volume 283, Part A, September 2016, Pages 276–286...The inhibitor and mimetic were administered to awake rats via the it catheters. Prior to injection, active or mismatch inhibitors were mixed with (1:5 w/v) i-Fect™ in vivo transfection reagent(Neuromics, Edina, USA) to final doses of 5, 2 and 1 μg in 10 μl...
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Spinal administration of miR-132-3p antagonists via intrathecal (i.t.) catheters dose dependently reversed mechanical allodyina  and eliminated pain behavior in the place escape avoidance paradigm (p < 0.001). Intrathecal administration of miR-132-3p mimetic dose-dependently induced pain behavior in naïve rats (p < 0.001). Taken together these results indicate a pro-nociceptive effect of miR-132-3p in chronic neuropathic pain.

Finding like these could pave the way for an miRNA like therapy for pain.